Healthcare Proxy vs. Healthcare Surrogate

Recently, we asked people what questions they have regarding estate planning or for topics they would like us to cover for them in this blog. Someone asked about “healthcare proxies.” And this is a topic we love – because it is so important to have a named healthcare proxy or surrogate. These terms are interchangeable, by the way. And we typically use the term healthcare surrogate in our office, but either will work.

A healthcare surrogate is the person you name to make healthcare decisions on your behalf. Of course, your own decisions override any decisions your healthcare surrogate would make on your behalf, so long as you have capacity. But, the real issue is that if you somehow lose capacity, whether temporarily or permanently, it is too late to name someone to fill that role. The named healthcare surrogate can make all medical decisions and can also gain access to your medical records.

We suggest completing these designations to all of our clients. And, then, we direct our clients to give a copy of the documents to your healthcare providers so that in an emergency, your medical team will be aware of who your healthcare surrogate is and how to reach them.

Please call the office if you would like to discuss setting up your healthcare surrogate or for any other estate planning needs. We can be reached at (352) 356-8373.


I’m not rich — why would I need to worry about estate planning?

Many people think they aren’t “rich” so they don’t need an estate plan. But, estate planning is not just for the wealthy and it is really important for everyone in Florida. Estate planning consists of Powers of Attorney, Wills – also known as the last will and testament, which are subject to probate and estate planning also consists of trusts, among other things. Trust are not subject to probate which is the legal process of transferring property ownership to a beneficiary.

Trusts sometimes seem very complicated, but they are not – especially when one considers how they may simplify life for your loved ones after you are gone.

As a brief lesson: a grantor is the person who originally creates the trust. This is the person or persons who determine the rules of the trust. A trust is considered its own legal entity. The grantor transfers property into the trust by changing the way property or assets are titled. The trust can benefit one or more people. A trust is managed according to the trust document, which is the set of rules set out in the trust documents by the grantor. The rules can address who the beneficiaries are and what ages the beneficiaries will receive distributions (the distributions can be spread out over time or a lump sum). The trust allows the grantor more control of their assets, even after they pass away.

Trusts can also set up pet trusts, to ensure your beloved furry child is taken care of if one predeceases their animals. A trust can also establish a special needs trust, which can be used to provide ongoing financial support to children or dependents with disabilities. Sometimes, trusts can protect assets if one may need Medicaid benefits in the future. Transferring assets into an irrevocable trust at the proper time can protect property and prevent a person from exhausting his or her life’s savings before qualifying.  Asset protection trusts are also helpful for protecting assets from creditors.

The grantor can select whomever he or she wants as the trustee, and also controls what property is transferred into the trust. Once the final grantor passes away, a revocable trust becomes irrevocable and no changes can be made, ensuring the grantor’s wishes are followed. While the grantor is alive, the grantor can amend the trust rules and also the trust assets so long as the trust is a revocable trust.

Planning is Peace of Mind – not just for Hurricane Prep

It is hurricane season. As we have seen recently in North Carolina, and last year, right here close to home, hurricanes come whether we are ready or not. Whether we are prepared, or not. But, a little preparation can go a long way. And, if we prepare, there is no guarantee we will be affected. But, if we have prepared and do not experience the damage or power and water outages a hurricane can sometimes bring, what harm have we caused? Not preparing for hurricanes can bring far more hardship than preparing for one that didn’t bring damage.

Same goes for estate planning. Except, unlike a hurricane, death is inevitable. Like a hurricane, everyone has different goals and needs and a little preparation can go a long way to prevent bigger problems. Just because we plan, doesn’t mean death is immediately upon us.

But, it is also important to know that estate planning can be about living. And, doing so on your own terms. You can name pre-need guardians for your minor children should something happen to you. You can name a guardian for yourself, should you become unable to make your own decisions – and prevent a court’s involvement. You can decide who would handle your healthcare decisions in an emergency situation or who will handle your finances.

But, if we do not have any plans in place to help satisfy our needs, goals or wishes, and something tragic does happen, planning that could have cost a minimal amount could create the need for a court to determine what is best for us. And that can be expensive, but also intrusive.

Take charge now and give yourself and your family peace of mind. Call us today. Let’s have a free consultation to discuss your needs and your goals. Let us help you plan for peace of mind.

What is probate and can you avoid it?

First, what is probate? Probate is a court-supervised process for identifying, gathering and transferring the assets of a deceased person (decedent). The first step involves paying the decedent’s debts and then the decedent’s assets are distributed to to his or her beneficiaries.

In general, the decedent’s assets are used first to pay the cost of the probate proceeding, then are used to pay the decedent’s outstanding debts, and the remainder is distributed to the decedent’s beneficiaries.

Assets subject to the Court’s probate administration are only probate assets. But, not all assets are probate assets. There are ways that assets can be titled and/or owned that would make them non-probate assets. We can assist you in this.


The purpose of probate is to tie up loose ends, pass ownership of the decedent’s probate assets to the decedent’s beneficiaries and pay the decedent’s creditors, if necessary. It is the process that officially transfers legal ownership.

Many people tell us — but I have a will. A will does not avoid probate. If the decedent left a valid will, unless the will is admitted to probate in the court, it will be ineffective to pass ownership of probate assets to the decedent’s beneficiaries. The will must be submitted to the court within ten days of the decedent’s death. Depositing the will with the court does not cost anything, but there is a court fee to open a probate. (This lack of privacy of a recorded will is just one reason people sometimes look for alternatives to wills.)

In the previous blog post, we discussed, “What is a will? And do you need one?” But basically, a will is a written document that is signed by decedent and witnesses. A properly drafted and executed will allows a decedent to name a personal representative, the person who will administer and ensure the decedent’s intent is carried out, and also allows the decedent to name their beneficiaries. Thus, a properly drafted and properly executed will allows a decedent to circumvent Florida’s distribution formula to one that meets their specific wishes. In other words, without a will, the state determines how the assets are distributed.

If the decedent did not have a valid will, or if the will fails in some respect, the Court (via state statute) will determine how the assets will be distributed and who the personal representative will be. If there are no heirs, the state of Florida will take the decedent’s assets. This is rare, as most people have some surviving heir, even if distant.

A circuit court judge will oversee probate proceedings. the judge will making a ruling as to whether the decedent’s will is valid or if there is not a valid will, the judge will determine the decedent’s heirs.

If the decedent had a will that nominated a personal representative, the judge will also decide whether the person or institution nominated is qualified to serve in that position. If the nominated personal representative meets the statutory qualifications, the judge will issue ‘Letters of Administration,’ also referred to simply as ‘letters.” These “letters” are important evidence of the personal representative’s authority to administer the decedent’s probate estate.

If any questions or disputes arise while administering the decedent’s probate estate, the judge will hold a hearing as necessary to resolve the matter in question.

One of the primary purposes of probate is to ensure that the decedent’s debts are paid in an orderly fashion. The personal representative must use diligent efforts to give notice of the probate proceeding to ‘known or reasonably ascertainable’ creditors. Creditors who receive notice of the probate administration generally have three months to file a claim against the estate. The personal representative, or any other interested persons, may file an objection to the statement of claim. If an objection is filed, the creditor must file a separate independent lawsuit to pursue the claim.

So, probate can be a lengthy and complicated process. But, yes, there are ways to avoid probate and we can help. Make an appointment today. We can review your assets and plans and help you determine the plan that best suits your needs. And, we’ll help you execute it.

What is a will? And do you need one?

Often times, someone will call our office and ask if we do wills. We do.

The next most common question about wills is, “Do I need a will?” My answer will usually be…”It depends…” But, while a will may not meet all of your goals, it is important to have a will, at the minimum. Wills are very affordable, especially for the protection they provide.

A will – or a “last will and testament” – can help you ensure your assets go to whom you wish. Specifically, you can use a will to leave your property to people or organizations. And, in a will, one is able to name the person (a personal representative) who will ensure the provisions of the will are carried out. Without a will, the court will appoint a personal representative.

For parents, a will can provide peace of mind because in it, a parent can also name a personal guardian to care for their minor children. And, also just as important, a parent can name someone they trust to manage or oversee any assets or property they may leave to their minor children until they become of age, themselves.

But, what happens if someone were to pass away without a will?

Well, in Florida, if you die without a will, your property will be distributed according to Florida Statutes. In general, these laws give your property to your closest relatives, beginning with your spouse and children. If you don’t have a spouse or children, your grandchildren or your parents will get your property. If there are also no surviving parents or grandchildren, the distribution will continue down a list of relatives. However, if you have no legal heirs, or family members, the state will get your property.

While sometimes people want to do their own wills, it is important to fulfill the State’s very specific signing requirements. Additionally, should you wish to disinherit someone or if you think someone may contest your will, you may want to consult an attorney to ensure you are appropriately complying with state laws.

It is important to note that a will does not avoid probate. So, while a will does leave specific instructions that may contradict and supersede how the state would distribute your assets, it does not avoid court involvement. But, we will discuss probate a different time.

So, do you need a will? It depends.

But, call the office at (352) 356-8373 and we can discuss your specific needs.

~Natasha M. Allen, Esq.

Introduction to Legal Ease

From time to time, people have legal questions that can be quickly addressed. Of course, that is not always the case. All cases are different and generally, specific legal questions cannot be addressed in a forum such as this.
However, Legal Ease will address general issues and answer questions; attempting to make sometimes complicated issues a little more simple to understand. To that end, please let me know if you have a specific topic you would like me to cover. We’ll do our best to cover requested topics.

Welcome. Thank you for trusting us with your legal needs.

Natasha M. Allen, Esq.

Beware of Cyber scams while completing your shopping.

The Florida Bar News Dec 1, 2017

This may not be at the top of your holiday preparation list, but The Florida Bar’s Practice Resource Institute is reminding all Bar members to protect themselves from holiday phishing scams or malware campaigns.
A 2017 Cyber Monday Phishing Survey by DomainTools found that 38 percent of respondents had fallen victim to an online phishing attack. This is despite more than 90 percent of respondents stating that they are familiar with phishing. 
“This goes to show how clever these criminals have become with their schemes,” said Bar President Michael Higer. “During the holiday season, lawyers  just like everyone else  need to pay extra attention and be mindful of online scams.” 
The U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team  a division of the Department of Homeland Security  reminds the public to remain vigilant when browsing or shopping online this holiday season. Emails and ecards from unknown senders may contain malicious links. Fake advertisements or shipping notifications may deliver attachments infected with malware. Spoofed email messages and phony posts on social networking sites may request support for fraudulent causes.


Got a will? Here are 11 more end-of-life documents you may need

A 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine study found that 74 percent of adults have no healthcare proxy, living will or advance directives; only 42 percent have a will, according to a survey earlier this year from

Allen Law Office can help you – give us a call.

Your last will and testament shouldn’t be the last word on your end-of-life wishes.

If you knew you were going to be audited next month, you’d do what it takes to ensure the process goes smoothly, she said. Heading on vacation? Same.

Buffett says it's a mistake for Trump to end the estate tax—here's how that tax could affect you

Buffett says it’s a mistake for Trump to end the estate tax—here’s how it could affect you  

But on end-of-life matters, Florian said, we’re notoriously remiss. A 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine study found that 74 percent of adults have no healthcare proxy, living will or advance directives; only 42 percent have a will, according to a survey earlier this year from

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